The work in this Task is organised in four Subtasks:
Subtask A: Components, Systems & Quality
Subtask B: Control, Simulation & Design
Subtask C: Testing and demonstration projects
Subtask D: Dissemination & market deployment
Each Subtask consists of several work packages with specific focus and results. The Subtasks are described in more detail in the subsequent sections.
Subtask A : Components, systems and quality
The general objectives of this subtask are:
* to better know and characterize the most important components of the new solar cooling & heating systems, considering existing solar thermal cooling systems as a reference
* to identify ongoing and future related standards and testing methods
* to identify where new solar cooling & heating systems are suitable
* to develop tools and deliverables permitting to show the level of quality of both the most critical components and systems.
The specific objectives of this subtask are:
* to know the commercially available equipment on the AC side compatible with PV electricity supply as well as solar thermal cooling equipment
* to know the R&D entities working at the moment on the topic and what are the ongoing outputs, especially the key points in the interface AC unit / PV modules and system /grid
* to define the different possibilities on the storage side for new solar cooling & heating
* to easily classify the ST/PV cooling products/application (schematic square view method) so as to prepare a certification process
* to define procedures for measuring the performance of the PV cooling & heating systems and prepare the conditions for a quality label
* to estimate the value of electricity and LCA of the main components and systems
The subtask is structured in the following sections:
A1: Reference system (for heating/cooling)
In this work, the characterization of the reference system will carried out so as to prepare the economical comparison with the developed solar cooling/heating systems. The reference system will be depending on the countries and even potentially on the geographical area to be studied. In addition, this system will depend on the range of energy use: cooling, ambient heating, domestic hot water.
Therefore a set of reference systems will be selected and described on their technical performance level and their global cost (investment, operation and maintenance cost).
This database will permit furthermore in the Subtask to make a comparison with new generation solar cooling and heating systems
A2: New system configurations for cooling (AC, food conservation) and heating (DHW, ambient)
This activity will be dedicated at building the state of the art of the new system configurations for cooling and heating. This activity will be achieved realised in the early beginning part of the Task according to existing market available solutions. A second step of this activity will be to update this state of the art with progress occurring in the field thanks to R&D.
A3: Storage (electrical and thermal) concepts and management
This activity will focus on the analysis of storage solutions adequate for solar cooling and heating solutions on the market. Beyond the material itself, a particular focus will be made on the different possibilities to manage the storing/destoring sequences. Not only thermal sensible and latent storage tanks will be studied but as well electrical storage, building mass storage and potentially chilled water loop/ district network storage.
A4: Systems integration into buildings, microgrid and central Grid (existing control)
The activity will study in a conceptual approach called “square view” develop among IEA SHC task 44 consisting on simply presenting the different configurations of integration of solar cooling and heating systems among buildings, microgrids and the central grid. One criteria of limitation of the possibilities of configuration will be to consider systems available on the market to close to be commercialised.
A5: LCA and techno-eco comparison between reference and new systems
This activity will focus on the comparison between all the studied systems among this Subtask A and the reference systems when accurate (same location and same boundary conditions). The comparison will be both on a Life Cycle Analysis and on a techno-economical basis. So as to properly compare solutions, adequate key performance indicators will be investigated and selected from literature and practical experience from Task experts as well as industry players. Some recommendations will be developed to go for characterization test method (permitting to lead to a quality labeling scheme for new generation solar cooling systems) as well as standards
- D-A1: Definition of the existing cooling reference systems (A1)
- D-A2-1: State of the art of new generation commercially available products including costs, efficiency criteria ranking and performance characterization (A2)
- D-A2-2: Technical report on recent R&D work on the topic (A2)
- D-A3 : Technical report on best practices for energy storage including both efficiency and adaptability in solar cooling systems (including KPI’s) (A3)
- D-A4-1: Report on a new and universal classification method “new generation solar cooling square view” for generic systems (A4)
- D-A4-2: State of the art on the management of the interface solar cooling (eg. AC unit / PV modules) and distribution system /grid (A4)
- D-A5-1: Techno-economic analysis report on comparison between thermal and PV existing solar cooling systems including as well LCA approach and Eco label sensibility (A5)
- D-A5-2 : Draft document defining the Key Performance Indicators (KPI) of the market available systems and possible characterization test method (permitting to lead to a quality labeling scheme for new generation solar cooling systems) as well as standards (A5)
Subtask B : Control, simulation and design
General objective : to investigate the different control possibilities for the new generation solar cooling & heating systems for buildings so as to select the best strategies for given climates and countries and then develop modelling tools to predict performances and size/design systems. Besides, to manage a smart interaction with electric grid
Specific objectives :
* to analyze and select optimized control strategies to manage the interaction between solar and cooling machine (PV and heat pump unit especially)
* to provide modelling tools for complete generic systems
* to report sensitivity analysis on most of the selected systems
* to compare the performances at system level of all innovative systems
* to size the systems
* to investigate demand/response strategies to optimise the interaction with smart grids and work on forecasting tools dedicated to this purpose
The subtask is structured as follows:
B1: Reference conditions (economical, climatic, reference building with thermal and electrical load, etc..)
This activity will be developed in close cooperation with A1 and is aimed at understanding the reference boundary conditions for simulating a new generation solar cooling and heating system. These conditions are related to the climate, the building load especially, thermal and electrical. From the most promising identified markets, some set of duo climate/application will be selected and developed to produce data files. Among specific buildings to be selected, single house residential as well as multifamily and office and commercial building will be used. Air conditioning, heating, DHW and electrical appliances loads will be considered and potentially food conservation cooling loads for commercial buildings
B2: Grid access conditions and building load management analysis
This activity will focus on the conditions and impact of the new generation solar cooling and heating systems on the grid. This effect will be expressed through some values which will be inserted on the economical balance of the solar system (reduction of the grid stress factor for example, variable energy cost depending on the peak load situation). For example, could be modeled the impact on the grid for certain countries of a large amount of new generation solar cooling systems.
B3: Models of components (identification/validation) and system simulation
The present activity is dedicated to identify, test and validate component models which are part of the systems covered by the Task. Beyond components, several modeling tool will be investigated to see which of them are able to go for full system modeling. The output will be the presentation of a set of tools showing their ability to model some configurations and then the presentation of the level of accuracy and user friendliness.
B4: Control strategy analysis and optimization for ST and PV
Thanks to the cumulated work achieved from B1 to B3, full systems will be modeled with adequate boundary conditions and accurate models, permitting to proceed to detailed parametric and sensitive analysis on the best control strategies to adopt to optimize given performance criteria.
B5: System inter-comparison (cost/performance/reliability) between systems and with conventional, solar thermal, gas, etc…
This activity will be in charge from the existing design tool developed for IEA SHC Task 48 to adapt it for new generation solar cooling and heating systems peculiarities. Then, of course, this tool will have its validity checked in comparison with models developed in B4. The tool will be extended from the existing one by adding a country more important energy and grid access cost sensitivity. Beside the development of the tool, an extra work consisting on giving rules of dimensioning will be built. This report could be written and presented showing results though the format and the interface of the design tool, thus for a better educative purpose.
* D-B1: Technical report presenting the reference conditions for modelling (reference load profile and comfort conditions in case of living / office room AC/cooling)
* D-B2: Overview on peak demand & demand side management possibilities
* D-B3: Technical report on components & system model validation
* D-B4: Technical report on optimised control strategies for solar cooling & heating systems
* D-B5-1: Technical report on system dimensioning
* D-B5-2: Design tool including a country- and climate-sensitive economical analysis
Subtask C : Testing and demonstration projects
General objective : to stimulate, monitor and analyse performances of field test systems and demonstration projects for new generation solar cooling & heating systems
Specific objectives :
* to create a monitoring procedure for field tests or demo projects
* to select identified projects and organise a complete field test monitoring campaign for it
* to analyse potential technical issues on the monitored systems
* to report on the measured performances of the systems
* to validate and initiate standardised testing methods
The subtask is structured as follows:
C1: Monitoring procedure and monitoring system selection criteria
This task is dedicated to prepare the testing and the monitoring methodology to measure the performances of the selected demo projects. The idea is to consider the measurement points for selected demos projects. These points and the way to collect the measurement data will developed in partnership with activities A5 and A2. A valorization of past and ongoing results from IEA SHC Task 38, 44 and 48 will be done on how to properly monitor these new generation solar cooling and heating systems. An uncertainty analysis will be added to the method.
C2: System description for field test and demo projects
This activity is dealing with selection and description of field test and demo projects. The number of selected projects will be at least of 3, permitting to fully monitor the performances of the systems, according the procedure developed in activity C1.
C3: Monitoring data analysis on technical issues & on performances
This activity is aimed at recording and analyzing the monitoring data from the monitored projects selected in activity C2. The analysis methodology will be based on the work done in Task 38 but of course, adapted with features imposed by the new generation solar cooling and heating systems. The activity will include in addition to performance measurement and analysis an important side of analyzing technical issues and events occurring during the monitoring period.
C4: Best practices / feedback (planning+ commissioning + operation/measurements, user and grid utility…)
This activity is dealing with making a synthesis of the practical work of this subtask by producing a Best Practice document. This document will present the selected field test projects from the planning phase until the monitoring period, describing the different steps (planning, commissioning, etc..) as well as the consequence of the system management towards users and grid utilities. This technical descriptive document will be the basis of the part of the Handbook for New generation solar cooling and heating systems dedicated to best practices. An important contribution of planners will be valorized (flow chart for set in operation) as well as a best practice user will be built.
C5: Testing method initiation for standards
Linked with activity A5, this activity will consider the proposals on how to initiate a standardized testing method for new generation solar cooling and heating systems. A similar approach being for the moment engaged for both Task 48 and 44, this activity will make first an analysis of the results produced by the 2 other Tasks on this topic so as to see how to select among existing proposals or properly develop a way of testing performances. This activity will be linked as well with IEA PVPS Tasks dealing with testing standards for PV systems.
* D-C1: Monitoring procedure for field test & demo systems (depending on size and application)
* D-C2: Catalogue of selected systems (with full description)
* D-C3: Technical report on monitoring data analysis (technical issues + performances)
* D-C4: Technical content (best practices) for a part of the Handbook on efficient new generation cooling and heating systems
* D-C5: Technical report presenting a draft testing method for a quality standard on new generation cooling & heating systems
Subtask D : Dissemination and market deployment
General objectives :
* implementation of targeted promotion activities based on the collective work results;
* production of dissemination material for external communication; the implementation of knowledge transfer measures towards the technical stakeholders;
* development of instruments and their provision for policy makers and the creation and promotion of certification and standardisation schemes.
Specific objectives :
* to disseminate the Task results on national and international level
* to provide efficient communication tools such as brochures and guidelines
* to collect and structure evidence for policy actions
* to create guidelines for road mapping new generation solar cooling & heating
The subtask is structured as follows:
D1 Website dedicated to the Task
A website included into the IEA SHC portal will be established. This website will profit from a lot of mirror sites present among the participants of this Task, benefitting from their popularity to increase the number of vizualised pages.
This website will firstly present the Task results but it should welcome as soon as possible the presentation of first results of the Task.
D2 Handbook and simplified brochure
This activity is aimed at producing a Handbook on New generation solar cooling and heating systems. This book will present the results of the full Task through the 3 subtasks : state of the art of the technology, results of the modelling and optimisation work achieved in Subtask B and then as a third chapter the best practices results obtained in Subtask C. The book will be part of the SHC publications and will be written not only by putting together the activity reports. An important work of arrangement and didactic approach will be done so as to make this publication a reference book on the topic of New Generation solar cooling and heating systems.
Beside the handbook, a synthetic brochure will be produced so as to present the main results of the Task. This brochure will have maximum 4 to 6 pages. This brochure will be edited jointly by the Subtask Leader (Greenchiller) and IEA SHC program.
D3 Newsletters, workshops and conferences
The task participants will organise one half a day workshop dedicated to the industrial players involved in the sector (solar thermal manufacturers and installers, thermally driven cooling industry, planners). This will happen preferably once a year and before fixed experts meeting to as to test and make a feedback on the last developments achieved inside the Task. Thanks to this yearly event, a full retrofit process will be achieved and this will permit to make participate industry interested bodies without implicating them directly and deeply inside the Task R&D work. Short report will have to be done for each event.
For further dissemination of the achieved results of the R&D activities an annual electronic newsletter for the industrial players will be published.
D4 Road mapping and lobbying actions
As a result of this work package and a summary of the whole Task activities, a list of recommendations for policy options to develop the industry will be published. This list will be structured so as to become guidelines for roadmaps on new generation solar cooling and heating systems.
So as to organise it as well as possible, the achieved work on the topic of solar cooling road mapping from Task 48 will be used and extended to the new generation solar cooling and heating systems. Beside, a review of the impact of existing incentive schemes will be carried out.
The guidelines will include proposal for policy measures and how to make their promotion towards the local and national policy makers. This activity will be aimed at organising evidence for policy / lobbying actions to promote new generation solar cooling and heating systems: preparation of specific documents, networking, preparation of press release, creation of articles relating the Task activity.
- D-D1: Website dedicated to the Task
- D-D2.1 : Handbook for new generation solar cooling and heating systems
- D-D2.2 : Simplified short brochure
- D-D3 : Guidelines for Roadmaps on new generation solar cooling & heating
- D-D4 : Outreach report
- Customer and policy maker workshops
- Organising industry workshops
- Publishing an annual e-newsletter for the industry
- Report on lobbying actions describing all the actions and their impacts