Task 53
Task 53
SHC Task 53

New Generation Solar Cooling & Heating

Project (Task) Publications

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The following are publications developed under Task 53:

General Task Publications

Task 53 Highlights 2018
Task 53 Highlights 2018
February 2019 - PDF 0.31MB - Posted: 2019-02-10
Publisher: Task 53

A tremendous increase in the market for air-conditioning can be observed worldwide especially in developing countries. The results of the past IEA SHC Tasks and work on solar cooling in SHC Task 38: Solar Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration show the large potential of this technology for building air-conditioning, particularly in sunny regions. However, solar thermal cooling faces barriers to emerge as an economically competitive solution. Thus there is a strong need to stimulate the solar cooling sector for small and medium sized systems.

Solar Heating and Cooling & Solar Air-Conditioning Position Paper
Solar Heating and Cooling & Solar Air-Conditioning Position Paper
November 2018 - PDF 0.13MB - Posted: 2019-03-04
By: Daniel Neyer, Daniel Mugnier

The purpose of this paper is to provide relevant information to energy policymakers so that they can understand why and how solar cooling and air-conditioning (SAC) systems should be supported and promoted. It presents state of the art solar thermal and photovoltaic supported solar heating and cooling systems. In addition, it provides a comprehensive summary of the main findings as provided by the IEA SHC Task 53 work .

The Solar Cooling Design Guide: Case Studies of Successful Solar Air Conditioning Design
The Solar Cooling Design Guide: Case Studies of Successful Solar Air Conditioning Design
December 2017 - Posted: 2017-12-15
Editor: Daniel Mugnier, Daniel Neyer, Stephen D. White
Publisher: Wiley
Order - $95.00 USD
Solar cooling systems can be a cost-effective and environmentally attractive air-conditioning solution. The design of such systems, however, is complex. Research carried out under the aegis of the International Energy Agency's Solar Heating and Cooling Program has shown that there is a range of seemingly subtle design decisions that can impact significantly on the performance of solar cooling systems. In order to reduce the risk of errors in the design process, this guide provides detailed and very specific engineering design information. It focuses on case study examples of installed plants that have been monitored and evaluated over the last decade. For three successful plants the design process is described in detail and the rationale for each key design decision is explained. Numerical constraints are suggested for the sizing / selection parameters of key equipment items. Moreover, the application conditions under which the system selection is appropriate are discussed. By following The Guide for any of the three specific solar cooling systems, the designer can expect to reliably achieve a robust, energy-saving solution. This book is intended as a companion to the IEA Solar Cooling Handbook which provides a general overview of the various technologies as well as comprehensive advice to enable engineers to design their own solar cooling system from first principles.

Subtasks

Subtask A: Components, systems and quality

Definition of the existing cooling reference systems
Definition of the existing cooling reference systems
February 2019 - PDF 0.82MB - Posted: 2019-02-10
By: Tim Selke

In this activity of SHC Task 53, a detailed description of typical conventional reference system is delivered. Market dominating small scale system types (< 10 kW) for air-conditioning, cooling and heating for rooms are investigated and identified reference systems apply the mechanical compression method to treat the working fluid.  The reference system respect different European climate zones and with displaying and discussing the simulation results of a parametric study, the energy performance of the defined reference system is shown as a function of the room type and of the climate condition of the selected European Cities.

 

State of the art of new generation commercially available products
State of the art of new generation commercially available products
November 2017 - PDF 4.18MB - Posted: 2017-11-28
By: Daniel Mugnier (TECSOL) & Alexandre Mopty ; Marcu Rennhofer (AIT) & Tim Selke (AIT)
Editor: Daniel Mugnier

The A2 activity is dedicated to building the state-of-the-art for new cooling and heating system configurations according to market available and close to market solutions (R&D level just before or during demo stage) at the start of SHC Task 53). This state-of-the-art is based on results from surveying SHC Task 53 participants, and no claim can be made for completeness. The survey results for both solar thermal and solar PV solutions are classified according different criteria: size, applications, etc. The present report has been built so as to make a picture of the existing and future systems called “New Generation Solar Cooling and Heating Systems” and try to understand their main features. This picture cannot be completed but this can give an interesting fore view of this new generation. This survey is not including refrigeration systems. The solutions are all pre-engineered systems with small to medium capacities for the following building types: single family houses, small multi-family buildings, offices, shops, commercial centres, factories, hotels. All of these buildings can be grid connected or off grid in case of PV cooling and heating. The cooling and heating power range will be from 1 kWcooling/heating to several tens of kWcooling/heating. The majority of the presented solutions can be driven by solar thermal or/and solar photovoltaic energy, which means these are all solar cooling solutions. 10 solutions are described in a summary set of tables giving technical comparative details as well as some economic indications (overall average end user price for instance) and a comparative square view of the principle scheme is presented. Additional details and pictures can be found in the Annex.

Subtask C: Testing and demonstration projects

Catalogue of Selected Systems
Catalogue of Selected Systems
Task 53 / Report C2
June 2018 - PDF 1.02MB - Posted: 2019-03-08
By: Daniel Neyer, Rebekka Köll and Pedro G. Vicente Quiles
IEA SHC Task 53 continues the work of earlier IEA SHC Tasks (Tasks 38, 48) to find solutions to make solar heating and cooling systems interesting and more cost competitive. The general objective of Subtask C is to stimulate, monitor and analyze performance of field test systems and demonstration projects of new generation solar cooling & heating systems.

Other

Articles

Next Generation Solar Cooling & Heating Systems
Next Generation Solar Cooling & Heating Systems
December 2018 - PDF 0.49MB - Posted: 2018-12-17
By: Daniel Mugnier, Bärbel Epp
Publisher: IEA SHC Task 53
For the IEA SHC, we’ve long seen this ever-growing demand for cooling as an opportunity for solar technology and an area for international collaboration. Our most recent solar cooling Task is winding down. For the past four years, an international team of researchers worked on 1) solutions to make solar driven heating and cooling systems cost competitive and 2) building a sustainable and robust market for new innovative solar thermal and PV cooling systems. (Task’s results continue to be posted on the Task webpage task53.iea-shc.org). Both of these goals require methods for assessing and evaluating the technical and economic potential of the technology and benchmarking against conventional systems and different renewable technologies. Two tools developed to do just this are T53E4 and ELISA.
Task 53: The Future of Solar Cooling
Task 53: The Future of Solar Cooling
May 2016 - PDF 0.35MB - Posted: 2016-05-25
By: Daniel Mugnier
The increasing demand for refrigeration and air conditioning has led to a dramatic increase in peak electricity demand in many countries. With the increase in demand comes the increase in the cost of electricity and summer brownouts, which have been attributed to the large number of conventional air conditioning systems running on electricity. As the number of traditional vapor compression cooling machines grows (more than 100 million units sold in 2014) so do greenhouse gas emissions, both from direct leakage of high GWP refrigerant, such as HFCs, and from indirect emissions related to fossil fuel derived electricity consumption. An obvious counter to this trend is to use the same energy for generation of cooling that contributes to creating the cooling demand—solar energy.
Task 53: Solar Cooling 2.0 A New Generation Is Growing Up
Task 53: Solar Cooling 2.0 A New Generation Is Growing Up
November 2015 - PDF 0.17MB - Posted: 2015-11-17
By: Riccardo Battisti, Ambiente Italia
Publisher: IEA SHC
The September workshop on New Generation Solar Cooling & Heating Systems focused on the status of solar cooling technology research and market developments. About 40 professionals gathered in Rome for this half day event, which was organized by IEA SHC Task 53: New Generation Solar Cooling & Heating Systems and the German Eastbavarian Institute for Technology Transfer, OTTI e.V. the day before OTTI’s 6th International Conference on Solar Air-Conditioning. Participants learned first hand about the first outcomes of SHC Task 53 that began its collaborative work in March 2014 and includes the participation of ten countries from across the globe.

Presentations

State of the Art for Solar Thermal or PV Cooling and Refrigeration
State of the Art for Solar Thermal or PV Cooling and Refrigeration
October 2014 - PDF 3.17MB - Posted: 2015-01-02
By: Daniel Mugnier
Presentation at SHC 2014

Highlights

Task 53 Highlights 2018
Task 53 Highlights 2018
February 2019 - PDF 0.31MB - Posted: 2019-02-10
Publisher: Task 53

A tremendous increase in the market for air-conditioning can be observed worldwide especially in developing countries. The results of the past IEA SHC Tasks and work on solar cooling in SHC Task 38: Solar Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration show the large potential of this technology for building air-conditioning, particularly in sunny regions. However, solar thermal cooling faces barriers to emerge as an economically competitive solution. Thus there is a strong need to stimulate the solar cooling sector for small and medium sized systems.

Task 53 Highlights 2017
Task 53 Highlights 2017
January 2018 - PDF 0.88MB - Posted: 2018-01-26
A tremendous increase in the market for air-conditioning can be observed worldwide especially in developing countries. The results of the past IEA SHC Tasks and work on solar cooling in SHC Task 38: Solar Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration show the large potential of this technology for building air-conditioning, particularly in sunny regions. However, solar thermal cooling faces barriers to emerge as an economically competitive solution. Thus there is a strong need to stimulate the solar cooling sector for small and medium sized systems.
Task 53 Highlights 2016
Task 53 Highlights 2016
April 2017 - PDF 0.53MB - Posted: 2017-04-17
By: Task 53
SHC Task 53, building upon earlier IEA SHC work in this field, is working to find solutions to make solar driven heating and cooling systems cost competitive and to help build a strong and sustainable market for new innovative thermal cooling systems and solar PV.
Task 53 Highlights 2015
Task 53 Highlights 2015
April 2016 - PDF 0.21MB - Posted: 2016-04-05
A tremendous increase in the market for air-conditioning can be observed worldwide especially in developing countries. The results of the past IEA SHC Tasks and work on solar cooling in SHC Task 38: Solar Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration show the large potential of this technology for building air-conditioning, particularly in sunny regions. However, solar thermal cooling faces barriers to emerge as an economically competitive solution. Thus there is a strong need to stimulate the solar cooling sector for small and medium sized systems.
Task 53 Highlights 2014
Task 53 Highlights 2014
March 2015 - PDF 0.15MB - Posted: 2015-02-12
A tremendous increase in the market for air-conditioning can be observed worldwide especially in developing countries. The results of the past IEA SHC Tasks and work on solar cooling in SHC Task 38: Solar Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration show the large potential of this technology for building air-conditioning, particularly in sunny regions. However, solar thermal cooling faces barriers to emerge as an economically competitive solution. Thus there is a strong need to stimulate the solar cooling sector for small and medium sized systems.

Supporting Documents

Task 53 Description and Work Plan
Task 53 Description and Work Plan
Update of the Work Plan
May 2016 - Posted: 2014-02-15
By: Daniel Mugnier
The results of past IEA SHC Task 38 Solar Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration and ongoing IEA SHC Task 48 Quality Assurance and support Measures for Solar Cooling systems on the one hand showed the great potential of this technology for building air-conditioning, particularly in sunny regions. On the other hand, it has been shown that further work is necessary in order to achieve economically competitive systems, using either the solar thermal or the solar photovoltaic driving energy. One Task definition workshop has been held with the aim to define the required new activities and to develop a structure for a new Task entitled „ PV and solar thermal driven cooling & heating systems “. Stimulated by the rising cooling demand in the World and at the same time a very significant PV modules price decrease, an important interest for new generation solar cooling systems has arisen. At the same time, solar thermal cooling technology still suffers from an important lack of competitiveness due to a very small market size and difficulties to go to massive cost reduction at least in the small system (<50 kWcooling) range. Besides, the solar photovoltaic source coupled with compression technology (heat pump) presents a very promising alternative but is still in its technical infancy.

Software-Tools

ELISA Tool : Life Cycle Analysis for Solar Cooling Systems
ELISA Tool : Life Cycle Analysis for Solar Cooling Systems
February 2019 - Posted: 2019-02-13
Publisher: Task 53

Another Excel-based tool is the Environmental Life Cycle Impacts of Solar Air-conditioning Systems (ELISA). This user-friendly Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tool can assist researchers, designers, and decision makers in evaluating the life cycle energy and environmental advantages for solar cooling systems in place of conventional ones. This easy to use tool, designed for educational and research activities, takes into consideration specific climatic conditions and building loads.

ELISA Tool

ELISA was developed by the University of Palermo to carry out simplified LCAs and to compare SHC systems with conventional systems. It can:

  • Be used for different geographic contexts
  • Compare up to 4 typologies of systems:
  1. SHC system
  2. SHC system with photovoltaic panels (PVs)
  3. Conventional systems
  4. Conventional systems with PVs
  • Calculate for:
  1. Global warming potential (GWP)
  2. Global energy requirement (GER)
  3. Energy payback time (EPT)
  4. GWP payback time (GWP-PT)
  5. Energy return ratio (ERR)

Elisa Tool

Contacts: Marco Beccali (marco.beccali@dream.unipa.it) / Sonia Longo (sonialongo@dream.unipa.it)
 
 

T53E4 Tool – To Assess a System’s Technical and Economic Potential
February 2019 - Posted: 2019-02-13
Publisher: Task 53

T53E4, a technical and economic assessment tool, rates and benchmarks new developments at the system level (proper design and operation). This assessment tool provides a comprehensive database of boundary conditions that are used in various configurations and applications, which means that tool users can assess entirely different types of configurations. Users can obtain information on the efficiency and cost of a solar heating and cooling (SHC) installation and the reference system in a common comparable format. As part of this work, the Task researchers assessed and benchmarked 28 solar heating and cooling systems with the cooling capacity ranging from 5 kW to more than 150 kW.

The tool’s reference system consists of a natural gas boiler and an air-cooled vapor compression chiller. All key results are provided in a normalized form. This means that a specific reference was selected to avoid a discussion about the absolute values and the right choice of boundary conditions.

T53E4 Tool

Results of analyses using the T53E4 tool: The cost ratio is shown on the y-axis over the non-renewable primary energy savings fsav PER-NRE on the x-axis. The graph on the left shows the configurations at southern sites, where cooling demand dominates over the summer. The graph on the right shows results from northern locations, where the need for cooling is lower during the same period

Two main parameters were calculated from the monthly energy balance of each configuration: • The non-renewable primary energy savings (fsav PER-NRE), which compares the non-renewable primary energy demand of an SHC system to those by a reference system. The fsav ranges from 0.3 to 0.94, which means that solar energy replaces 30% to 94% of non-renewable primary energy demand of the reference system.

The cost ratio (CR) to describe the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of an SHC system as opposed to the LCOE of a reference installation. The LCOE is derived from annuities paid over the lifetime of a system (typically 25 years). A CR below 1, such as 0.8, indicates that the solar device offers a 20% reduction in costs compared to the baseline, while a CR above 1, such as 1.4, describes a system that raises costs by 40%.

The configurations were then grouped by boundary conditions, for example, whether the location is in the south or north, and identified separate lines for solar heat and PV. Northern installations consist of those in Austria, Finland, Germany, Sweden, and Switzerland. Sites in the south are found in Italy, Spain, France, and China. The southern locations depicted on the left graph below show promising results, with between 40% and 70% of energy savings at a total cost lower than that of the reference systems. This amount of saving is possible for both PV (see dotted line) and solar heat (see continuous line). If the industry could offer reduced system costs by only 15%, energy savings could be as high as 80% and the units would be cost competitive in southern locations.

The cooling systems in northern locations, where there is less demand for air conditioning (graph on the right-hand side above), paint an entirely different picture. Only if primary energy savings are kept to 40% systems can be cost-competitive to references. Aiming for savings of between 60% and 80% will increase costs tremendously. Again, it is the investment that had the strongest impact of all parameters. If investment costs are reduced by at least 30%, cost-effectiveness could be guaranteed along the entire trendline.

What this tool shows is that cost-competitive solar cooling configurations are possible even with today’s investment cost models. And, that solar technologies can be optimized for solar heating and cooling. Whether solar thermal or PV is the more favorable option will mostly depend on the location and the design of the system.

T53E4 Tool

Contacts: Daniel Neyer (daniel@neyer-brainworks.at) / Rebekka Koell (r.koell@aee.at)