Task 53
Task 53
SHC Task 53

New Generation Solar Cooling & Heating

Project (Task) Publications

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The following are publications developed under Task 53:

General Task Publications

Task 53 Highlights 2018
Task 53 Highlights 2018
February 2019 - PDF 0.31MB - Posted: 2019-02-10
Publisher: Task 53

A tremendous increase in the market for air-conditioning can be observed worldwide especially in developing countries. The results of the past IEA SHC Tasks and work on solar cooling in SHC Task 38: Solar Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration show the large potential of this technology for building air-conditioning, particularly in sunny regions. However, solar thermal cooling faces barriers to emerge as an economically competitive solution. Thus there is a strong need to stimulate the solar cooling sector for small and medium sized systems.

Solar Heating and Cooling & Solar Air-Conditioning Position Paper
Solar Heating and Cooling & Solar Air-Conditioning Position Paper
November 2018 - PDF 0.13MB - Posted: 2019-03-04
By: Daniel Neyer, Daniel Mugnier

The purpose of this paper is to provide relevant information to energy policymakers so that they can understand why and how solar cooling and air-conditioning (SAC) systems should be supported and promoted. It presents state of the art solar thermal and photovoltaic supported solar heating and cooling systems. In addition, it provides a comprehensive summary of the main findings as provided by the IEA SHC Task 53 work .

The Solar Cooling Design Guide: Case Studies of Successful Solar Air Conditioning Design
The Solar Cooling Design Guide: Case Studies of Successful Solar Air Conditioning Design
December 2017 - Posted: 2017-12-15
Editor: Daniel Mugnier, Daniel Neyer, Stephen D. White
Publisher: Wiley
Order - $95.00 USD
Solar cooling systems can be a cost-effective and environmentally attractive air-conditioning solution. The design of such systems, however, is complex. Research carried out under the aegis of the International Energy Agency's Solar Heating and Cooling Program has shown that there is a range of seemingly subtle design decisions that can impact significantly on the performance of solar cooling systems. In order to reduce the risk of errors in the design process, this guide provides detailed and very specific engineering design information. It focuses on case study examples of installed plants that have been monitored and evaluated over the last decade. For three successful plants the design process is described in detail and the rationale for each key design decision is explained. Numerical constraints are suggested for the sizing / selection parameters of key equipment items. Moreover, the application conditions under which the system selection is appropriate are discussed. By following The Guide for any of the three specific solar cooling systems, the designer can expect to reliably achieve a robust, energy-saving solution. This book is intended as a companion to the IEA Solar Cooling Handbook which provides a general overview of the various technologies as well as comprehensive advice to enable engineers to design their own solar cooling system from first principles.

Subtasks

Subtask A: Components, systems and quality

Definition of the existing cooling reference systems
Definition of the existing cooling reference systems
February 2019 - PDF 0.82MB - Posted: 2019-02-10
By: Tim Selke

In this activity of SHC Task 53, a detailed description of typical conventional reference system is delivered. Market dominating small scale system types (< 10 kW) for air-conditioning, cooling and heating for rooms are investigated and identified reference systems apply the mechanical compression method to treat the working fluid.  The reference system respect different European climate zones and with displaying and discussing the simulation results of a parametric study, the energy performance of the defined reference system is shown as a function of the room type and of the climate condition of the selected European Cities.

 

LCA and techno-eco comparison between reference and new systems
LCA and techno-eco comparison between reference and new systems
A5 Final Report
June 2018 - PDF 2.03MB - Posted: 2019-06-03
Editor: Marco Beccali, Maurizio Cellura, Sonia Longo

This technical report describes the research activities developed within Subtasks A: “Components, Systems & Quality, Activity A5 “LCA and techno-eco comparison between reference and new systems”.
Subtask A – Activity A5 is focused on environmental analysis and, when applicable, on the techno-economic analysis, of the systems studied in Subtask A, and the comparison with reference systems when accurate (same location and same boundary conditions).

 

Report on a new and universal classification method “new generation solar cooling square view” for generic systems
Report on a new and universal classification method “new generation solar cooling square view” for generic systems
A4 Final Report
May 2018 - PDF 1.2MB - Posted: 2019-06-03
By: Marcus Rennhofer, Tim Selke

The activity will study in a conceptual approach called “square view” develop among IEA SHC Task 44 consisting on simply presenting the different configurations of integration of solar cooling and heating systems among buildings, micro grids and the central grid. One criteria of limitation of the possibilities of configuration will be to consider systems available on the market to close to be commercialized.

Technical report on best practices for energy storage including both efficiency and adaptability in solar cooling systems
Technical report on best practices for energy storage including both efficiency and adaptability in solar cooling systems
A3 Final Report
November 2017 - PDF 2.56MB - Posted: 2019-06-03
Editor: Dr. Elena-Lavinia Niederhäuser, Matthias Rouge

The gravity centre in energy research and development is shifting from centralized production to the level of building neighbourhood, district and urban systems that bring together a variety of classical research topics such as energy management, as well as the production of heat/cold and of electricity via renewable and non-renewable technologies, electricity distribution networks, thermal networks, energy demand in buildings into one integrated system. Thus, a strong need to stimulate the solar cooling sector for small and medium power size was identified.

State of the art of new generation commercially available products
State of the art of new generation commercially available products
November 2017 - PDF 4.18MB - Posted: 2017-11-28
By: Daniel Mugnier (TECSOL) & Alexandre Mopty ; Marcu Rennhofer (AIT) & Tim Selke (AIT)
Editor: Daniel Mugnier

The A2 activity is dedicated to building the state-of-the-art for new cooling and heating system configurations according to market available and close to market solutions (R&D level just before or during demo stage) at the start of SHC Task 53). This state-of-the-art is based on results from surveying SHC Task 53 participants, and no claim can be made for completeness. The survey results for both solar thermal and solar PV solutions are classified according different criteria: size, applications, etc. The present report has been built so as to make a picture of the existing and future systems called “New Generation Solar Cooling and Heating Systems” and try to understand their main features. This picture cannot be completed but this can give an interesting fore view of this new generation. This survey is not including refrigeration systems. The solutions are all pre-engineered systems with small to medium capacities for the following building types: single family houses, small multi-family buildings, offices, shops, commercial centres, factories, hotels. All of these buildings can be grid connected or off grid in case of PV cooling and heating. The cooling and heating power range will be from 1 kWcooling/heating to several tens of kWcooling/heating. The majority of the presented solutions can be driven by solar thermal or/and solar photovoltaic energy, which means these are all solar cooling solutions. 10 solutions are described in a summary set of tables giving technical comparative details as well as some economic indications (overall average end user price for instance) and a comparative square view of the principle scheme is presented. Additional details and pictures can be found in the Annex.

Subtask B: Control, simulation and design

Technical report on the reference conditions for modelling
Technical report on the reference conditions for modelling
B1 Final Report
June 2018 - PDF 2.01MB - Posted: 2019-06-03
Editor: Chiara Dipasquale, Roberto Fedrizzi, Valeria Palomba, Alex Thür, DagmarJähnig

The main objective of SubTask B is to analyse and select optimized control strategies to manage the interaction between solar and cooling machine and to investigate demand/response strategies to optimise the interaction with smart grids. The latter objective is developed in the Deliverable B2, while the first is presented in the Deliverable B5. Reference buildings, energy plant layouts and control strategies used for assessing the performance of innovative systems are described in B1, B3 and B4 respectively.

The aim of this report is therefore to provide information on the boundary conditions and construction typologies that have been used to simulate heating and cooling demands of residential buildings.

Technical report on components and system models validation
Technical report on components and system models validation
B3 Final Report
June 2018 - PDF 1.44MB - Posted: 2019-06-03
Editor: Chiara Dipasquale, Roberto Fedrizzi, Valeria Palomba, Alex Thür, DagmarJähnig

This document reports on the layout configuration and components characteristics of solar driven heating and cooling systems. These HVAC systems are installed in the residential buildings described in the Deliverable B1.

The energy plant reported for the first example has a modular structure in a way that different configurations can be modelled and system performance can be compared. Four generation devices, three distribution systems and different solar field areas of solar thermal and PV systems can be combined keeping the control strategies unchanged.

Technical report on system sizing and optimised control strategies
Technical report on system sizing and optimised control strategies
B4 Final Report
June 2018 - PDF 1.73MB - Posted: 2019-06-03
Editor: Chiara Dipasquale, Roberto Fedrizzi, Valeria Palomba, Alex Thür, Dagmar Jähnig
Technical report on simulations results and systems intercomparison
Technical report on simulations results and systems intercomparison
B5 Final Report
June 2018 - PDF 2.04MB - Posted: 2019-06-03
By: Chiara Dipasquale, Roberto Fedrizzi, Valeria Palomba, Alex Thür, Dagmar Jähnig

The use of solar technologies for covering heating and cooling loads can assume different configurations. In deliverable B3, a number of this kind of heating & cooling systems are described. These systems are installed in residential buildings described in the deliverable B1: single and multi-family houses located in different climates throughout Europe. Systems sizing and control strategies are reported in B4.
 

Subtask C: Testing and demonstration projects

Catalogue of Selected Systems
Catalogue of Selected Systems
Task 53 / Report C2
June 2018 - PDF 1.02MB - Posted: 2019-03-08
By: Daniel Neyer, Rebekka Köll and Pedro G. Vicente Quiles
IEA SHC Task 53 continues the work of earlier IEA SHC Tasks (Tasks 38, 48) to find solutions to make solar heating and cooling systems interesting and more cost competitive. The general objective of Subtask C is to stimulate, monitor and analyze performance of field test systems and demonstration projects of new generation solar cooling & heating systems.
Monitoring Procedure for Field Test & Demo Systems with Compression Heat Pumps Driven by Photovoltaic Solar Energy
Monitoring Procedure for Field Test & Demo Systems with Compression Heat Pumps Driven by Photovoltaic Solar Energy
C1-1 Final Report
June 2018 - PDF 2.21MB - Posted: 2019-06-03
By: Franscisco Aguilar Valero, Daniel Neyer and Pedro Vicente Quiles

Monitoring of field test systems and demonstration projects for new generation solar cooling & heating systems is fundamental to analyze their performances, to identify, their possibilities and to verify the quality of the proposed solutions. This work is done in Subtask C, called “Testing and demonstration projects”, using the results of Subtasks A and B.
 

Adapted Monitoring Procedure for the thermal side of New Generation Solar Heating & Cooling Systems
Adapted Monitoring Procedure for the thermal side of New Generation Solar Heating & Cooling Systems
C1-2 Final Report
June 2018 - PDF 1.84MB - Posted: 2019-06-03
By: Bettina Nock3, Daniel Neyer, Alexander Thür, Karl Berger

Activity 1 of Subtask C is dedicated to prepare the testing and the monitoring methodology to measure the performances of the selected demo projects for NG H&C-Systems. A valorization of past and ongoing results from IEA SHC Task 38, 44 and 48 was done on how to properly monitor these systems, in order to achieve reliable indicators and significant information on the performance as well as primary energy savings and reduction of greenhouse gases, plus finally also on economic criteria.

Monitoring data analysis on technical issues & on performances
Monitoring data analysis on technical issues & on performances
C3 Final Report
June 2018 - PDF 10.2MB - Posted: 2019-06-03
By: Rebekka Köll and Daniel Neyer

The number of solar cooling and heating (SHC) systems is increasing permanently (Mugnier and Jakob, 2015) new technologies and different solutions are available on research level but also on the market (Mugnier, 2015). These systems are characterized by a high diversity of design possibilities including not only different cooling and heating technologies, but also a great variety of different renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Main obstacles for a wider and faster spread of solar cooling and heating are based on (i) lack of knowledge. (ii) technical issues but mainly on (iii) economics.
 

Other

Articles

Next Generation Solar Cooling & Heating Systems
Next Generation Solar Cooling & Heating Systems
December 2018 - PDF 0.49MB - Posted: 2018-12-17
By: Daniel Mugnier, Bärbel Epp
Publisher: IEA SHC Task 53
For the IEA SHC, we’ve long seen this ever-growing demand for cooling as an opportunity for solar technology and an area for international collaboration. Our most recent solar cooling Task is winding down. For the past four years, an international team of researchers worked on 1) solutions to make solar driven heating and cooling systems cost competitive and 2) building a sustainable and robust market for new innovative solar thermal and PV cooling systems. (Task’s results continue to be posted on the Task webpage task53.iea-shc.org). Both of these goals require methods for assessing and evaluating the technical and economic potential of the technology and benchmarking against conventional systems and different renewable technologies. Two tools developed to do just this are T53E4 and ELISA.
Task 53: The Future of Solar Cooling
Task 53: The Future of Solar Cooling
May 2016 - PDF 0.35MB - Posted: 2016-05-25
By: Daniel Mugnier
The increasing demand for refrigeration and air conditioning has led to a dramatic increase in peak electricity demand in many countries. With the increase in demand comes the increase in the cost of electricity and summer brownouts, which have been attributed to the large number of conventional air conditioning systems running on electricity. As the number of traditional vapor compression cooling machines grows (more than 100 million units sold in 2014) so do greenhouse gas emissions, both from direct leakage of high GWP refrigerant, such as HFCs, and from indirect emissions related to fossil fuel derived electricity consumption. An obvious counter to this trend is to use the same energy for generation of cooling that contributes to creating the cooling demand—solar energy.
Task 53: Solar Cooling 2.0 A New Generation Is Growing Up
Task 53: Solar Cooling 2.0 A New Generation Is Growing Up
November 2015 - PDF 0.17MB - Posted: 2015-11-17
By: Riccardo Battisti, Ambiente Italia
Publisher: IEA SHC
The September workshop on New Generation Solar Cooling & Heating Systems focused on the status of solar cooling technology research and market developments. About 40 professionals gathered in Rome for this half day event, which was organized by IEA SHC Task 53: New Generation Solar Cooling & Heating Systems and the German Eastbavarian Institute for Technology Transfer, OTTI e.V. the day before OTTI’s 6th International Conference on Solar Air-Conditioning. Participants learned first hand about the first outcomes of SHC Task 53 that began its collaborative work in March 2014 and includes the participation of ten countries from across the globe.

Presentations

State of the Art for Solar Thermal or PV Cooling and Refrigeration
State of the Art for Solar Thermal or PV Cooling and Refrigeration
October 2014 - PDF 3.17MB - Posted: 2015-01-02
By: Daniel Mugnier
Presentation at SHC 2014

Highlights

Task 53 Highlights 2018
Task 53 Highlights 2018
February 2019 - PDF 0.31MB - Posted: 2019-02-10
Publisher: Task 53

A tremendous increase in the market for air-conditioning can be observed worldwide especially in developing countries. The results of the past IEA SHC Tasks and work on solar cooling in SHC Task 38: Solar Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration show the large potential of this technology for building air-conditioning, particularly in sunny regions. However, solar thermal cooling faces barriers to emerge as an economically competitive solution. Thus there is a strong need to stimulate the solar cooling sector for small and medium sized systems.

Task 53 Highlights 2017
Task 53 Highlights 2017
January 2018 - PDF 0.88MB - Posted: 2018-01-26
A tremendous increase in the market for air-conditioning can be observed worldwide especially in developing countries. The results of the past IEA SHC Tasks and work on solar cooling in SHC Task 38: Solar Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration show the large potential of this technology for building air-conditioning, particularly in sunny regions. However, solar thermal cooling faces barriers to emerge as an economically competitive solution. Thus there is a strong need to stimulate the solar cooling sector for small and medium sized systems.
Task 53 Highlights 2016
Task 53 Highlights 2016
April 2017 - PDF 0.53MB - Posted: 2017-04-17
By: Task 53
SHC Task 53, building upon earlier IEA SHC work in this field, is working to find solutions to make solar driven heating and cooling systems cost competitive and to help build a strong and sustainable market for new innovative thermal cooling systems and solar PV.
Task 53 Highlights 2015
Task 53 Highlights 2015
April 2016 - PDF 0.21MB - Posted: 2016-04-05
A tremendous increase in the market for air-conditioning can be observed worldwide especially in developing countries. The results of the past IEA SHC Tasks and work on solar cooling in SHC Task 38: Solar Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration show the large potential of this technology for building air-conditioning, particularly in sunny regions. However, solar thermal cooling faces barriers to emerge as an economically competitive solution. Thus there is a strong need to stimulate the solar cooling sector for small and medium sized systems.
Task 53 Highlights 2014
Task 53 Highlights 2014
March 2015 - PDF 0.15MB - Posted: 2015-02-12
A tremendous increase in the market for air-conditioning can be observed worldwide especially in developing countries. The results of the past IEA SHC Tasks and work on solar cooling in SHC Task 38: Solar Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration show the large potential of this technology for building air-conditioning, particularly in sunny regions. However, solar thermal cooling faces barriers to emerge as an economically competitive solution. Thus there is a strong need to stimulate the solar cooling sector for small and medium sized systems.

Supporting Documents

Task 53 Description and Work Plan
Task 53 Description and Work Plan
Update of the Work Plan
May 2016 - Posted: 2014-02-15
By: Daniel Mugnier
The results of past IEA SHC Task 38 Solar Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration and ongoing IEA SHC Task 48 Quality Assurance and support Measures for Solar Cooling systems on the one hand showed the great potential of this technology for building air-conditioning, particularly in sunny regions. On the other hand, it has been shown that further work is necessary in order to achieve economically competitive systems, using either the solar thermal or the solar photovoltaic driving energy. One Task definition workshop has been held with the aim to define the required new activities and to develop a structure for a new Task entitled „ PV and solar thermal driven cooling & heating systems “. Stimulated by the rising cooling demand in the World and at the same time a very significant PV modules price decrease, an important interest for new generation solar cooling systems has arisen. At the same time, solar thermal cooling technology still suffers from an important lack of competitiveness due to a very small market size and difficulties to go to massive cost reduction at least in the small system (<50 kWcooling) range. Besides, the solar photovoltaic source coupled with compression technology (heat pump) presents a very promising alternative but is still in its technical infancy.

Software-Tools

ELISA Tool : Life Cycle Analysis for Solar Cooling Systems
ELISA Tool : Life Cycle Analysis for Solar Cooling Systems
February 2019 - Posted: 2019-02-13
Publisher: Task 53

Another Excel-based tool is the Environmental Life Cycle Impacts of Solar Air-conditioning Systems (ELISA). This user-friendly Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tool can assist researchers, designers, and decision makers in evaluating the life cycle energy and environmental advantages for solar cooling systems in place of conventional ones. This easy to use tool, designed for educational and research activities, takes into consideration specific climatic conditions and building loads.

ELISA Tool

ELISA was developed by the University of Palermo to carry out simplified LCAs and to compare SHC systems with conventional systems. It can:

  • Be used for different geographic contexts
  • Compare up to 4 typologies of systems:
  1. SHC system
  2. SHC system with photovoltaic panels (PVs)
  3. Conventional systems
  4. Conventional systems with PVs
  • Calculate for:
  1. Global warming potential (GWP)
  2. Global energy requirement (GER)
  3. Energy payback time (EPT)
  4. GWP payback time (GWP-PT)
  5. Energy return ratio (ERR)

Elisa Tool

Contacts: Marco Beccali (marco.beccali@dream.unipa.it) / Sonia Longo (sonialongo@dream.unipa.it)
 
 

T53E4 Tool – To Assess a System’s Technical and Economic Potential
February 2019 - Posted: 2019-02-13
Publisher: Task 53

T53E4, a technical and economic assessment tool, rates and benchmarks new developments at the system level (proper design and operation). This assessment tool provides a comprehensive database of boundary conditions that are used in various configurations and applications, which means that tool users can assess entirely different types of configurations. Users can obtain information on the efficiency and cost of a solar heating and cooling (SHC) installation and the reference system in a common comparable format. As part of this work, the Task researchers assessed and benchmarked 28 solar heating and cooling systems with the cooling capacity ranging from 5 kW to more than 150 kW.

The tool’s reference system consists of a natural gas boiler and an air-cooled vapor compression chiller. All key results are provided in a normalized form. This means that a specific reference was selected to avoid a discussion about the absolute values and the right choice of boundary conditions.

T53E4 Tool

Results of analyses using the T53E4 tool: The cost ratio is shown on the y-axis over the non-renewable primary energy savings fsav PER-NRE on the x-axis. The graph on the left shows the configurations at southern sites, where cooling demand dominates over the summer. The graph on the right shows results from northern locations, where the need for cooling is lower during the same period

Two main parameters were calculated from the monthly energy balance of each configuration: • The non-renewable primary energy savings (fsav PER-NRE), which compares the non-renewable primary energy demand of an SHC system to those by a reference system. The fsav ranges from 0.3 to 0.94, which means that solar energy replaces 30% to 94% of non-renewable primary energy demand of the reference system.

The cost ratio (CR) to describe the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of an SHC system as opposed to the LCOE of a reference installation. The LCOE is derived from annuities paid over the lifetime of a system (typically 25 years). A CR below 1, such as 0.8, indicates that the solar device offers a 20% reduction in costs compared to the baseline, while a CR above 1, such as 1.4, describes a system that raises costs by 40%.

The configurations were then grouped by boundary conditions, for example, whether the location is in the south or north, and identified separate lines for solar heat and PV. Northern installations consist of those in Austria, Finland, Germany, Sweden, and Switzerland. Sites in the south are found in Italy, Spain, France, and China. The southern locations depicted on the left graph below show promising results, with between 40% and 70% of energy savings at a total cost lower than that of the reference systems. This amount of saving is possible for both PV (see dotted line) and solar heat (see continuous line). If the industry could offer reduced system costs by only 15%, energy savings could be as high as 80% and the units would be cost competitive in southern locations.

The cooling systems in northern locations, where there is less demand for air conditioning (graph on the right-hand side above), paint an entirely different picture. Only if primary energy savings are kept to 40% systems can be cost-competitive to references. Aiming for savings of between 60% and 80% will increase costs tremendously. Again, it is the investment that had the strongest impact of all parameters. If investment costs are reduced by at least 30%, cost-effectiveness could be guaranteed along the entire trendline.

What this tool shows is that cost-competitive solar cooling configurations are possible even with today’s investment cost models. And, that solar technologies can be optimized for solar heating and cooling. Whether solar thermal or PV is the more favorable option will mostly depend on the location and the design of the system.

T53E4 Tool

Contacts: Daniel Neyer (daniel@neyer-brainworks.at) / Rebekka Koell (r.koell@aee.at)